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Heart                           CPR                               Heart                           CPR                        Heart                           CPR
Heart & CPR


The following ABCs treatment and examination must therefore be carried out in any unconscious patient.

1.Open the airway (A)

2.Verify braething (B)

3.Verify circulation (C)

Stages in the resuscitation of an unconscious person:

1.Opening the airway
2.Checking for breathing

3.Artificial respiration

 4.Checking for a pulse

5.Chest compressions

Vital signs:

1.Alertnes , mode of speech , and behavior

2.Quality of the pulse
3.Quality of the respiration

4.Blood pressure

5.Blood flow to the skin (peripheral perfusion)

Sites for measuring the pulse:

 Artery on:

 1.Groin              2.Front of the foot           3.neck              4.Elbow           5.Wrist           6.Behind ankle


* Assessment of the pulse :

rate: Normal ...  60-80 B/Min
abnormally rapid ... more than 100 B/Min
abnormally slow ...  less than 50 B/Min

rhythm: Regular or irregular
strength: full, weak or bounding

- as stend, every unconscious person must be considered to have airway obstruction, apnea,and
no pulse until proved otherwise. you must, therfore start several urgent procedures in any
unconscious person as part of the primary survey. the proceduresare carried out in three
steps, referredto as the ABCs- which stand for the three guiding principle in CPR:

  Airway _____ open the airway.
  Breathing ___ ensure adequate respirations.
  Circulation ___ ensure adequate blood circulation.

- sequence of actions in one-operator CPR:
1.confirm unconscious.
2.open the airway.
3.check for breathing.
4.give two slow opening breaths.
5.check for a carotid pulse.

6.perform 15 successive chest compressions

7.give 2 slow breaths in succession.
continue cycles of 15 compressions and 2 breaths.
every few minutes check the carotid pulse.

- steps in two-operator CPR:

second operator-compresses:

first operator-ventilates:

positions himself by the side of the victim`s chest. confirms unconsciousness.
exposes the victim`s chest and places his hands in position for compression. opens airway.
start compressing continuously at a rate of 90 compressions per minute  while counting aloud: "1-1000, 2-1000,3-1000...". check for breathing.
stop for 1/5 seconds. gives 2 opening breaths.
resumes compression. checks for carotid pulse.
  says, "start compressions".
  check efficacy of compression by palpating carotid pulse.
  give one long breath over 1/5 seconds
  check effectiveness of compression by palpating carotid pulse.

 Copyright © 2003 The IRAN Red Crescent. All Rights Reserved .